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Dating of coins
The table of conformity of figures
Arabian | |
Iran | |
Burma | |
Bangladesh | |
Nepal | |
Thailand | |
Laos | |
Japan and China | |
Ethiopia |
Dates in letters on Russian coins of the beginning of 18 century
СЗ - 1699 | АΨГ - 1703 | АΨЗ - 1707 | АΨАI - 1711 | АΨЕI - 1715 | АΨΘI - 1719 | |||||
АΨ - 1700 | АΨД - 1704 | АΨИ - 1708 | АΨВI - 1712 | АΨSI - 1716 | АΨК - 1720 | |||||
АΨА - 1701 | АΨЕ - 1705 | АΨΘ - 1709 | АΨГI - 1713 | АΨЗI - 1717 | АΨКА - 1721 | |||||
АΨВ - 1702 | АΨS - 1706 | АΨI - 1710 | АΨДI - 1714 | АΨИI - 1718 | АΨКВ - 1722 |
Coins of the Arabian countries more often are
dated on Muslim system - Hijra - from date of resettlement of the founder of
Moslem doctrine from Mecca to Medina which has in 622 year, July, 16 . Lunar
year is shorter solar, therefore for translation of year Hijra the following
formula is used: Y=H*0.97+621,6, where Y - year of a Christian calendar, H -
year Hijra. In Afghanistan since 1932 (and also in 1920-1928) and in
Iran since 1926 on coins solar year Hijra is underlined. Year of a
Christian calendar: Y=H+ 622 (+ - 1). Coins of Ottoman empire has two dates -
year of the introduction on a throne of the sultan (on lunar Hijra) and year of
board. For definition of year of release of a coin it is necessary to combine
both figures and then to translate the received date Hijra.
India. On the Indian coins of different provinces and
princedoms there are dates of a Christian calendar, lunar Hijra, Samvat (the
beginning - 57 year B.C.), Saka (the beginning - 78 year of our era), Malabar
(the beginning - 824 year of our era) and a Buddhist calendar (the beginning "
543 year B.C.). The Buddhist system meets also on old coins of Ceylon and
Thailand.
Thailand. On the Thai coins there may be years Bangkok era (the
beginning - 1782 of our era), and also years of era Chula Sakarat (the beginning
- 639 year of our era). Years of era Chula Sakarat meet also on coins of Burma
and Kampuchea.
China. On the Chinese coins, up to an establishment of republic
in 1911, years are specified mainly on cyclic system by two hieroglyphs. In this
system consecutive years are united in cycles for 60 years in everyone. Each
year inside a cycle has the hieroglyphic designation. To determine year of
release of a coin, it is necessary to establish the period of its release on the
hieroglyphs designating era. Sometimes on the Chinese coins years of this or
that era, for example, 23-rd year Guanekoi that corresponds to 1898 of our era
were specified. But more often on coins era that allows to define only the
period of release of a coin is designated only. With 1911 for 1949 on the
Chinese coins year of republic was put down. For example: 5-th year of republic
that meets to 1916.
Korea. The Korean coins of different times are dated years of
various systems where the account is conducted since 2333 B.C.., with 1394, 1896
and 1907 of our era.
Japan. On the Japanese coins the era conterminous to the period
is underlined boards of emperor and year of era. Thus, for definition of year of
release of a coin by one year of the beginning of era it is necessary to add
year of era. For example, 37 year of era Maidzy beginning since 1868,
corresponds to 1905 of a modern calendar.
Designations of eras:
1868-1912 | Maidzy, imperator Matzushito | |||
1912-1926 | Taisho, imperator Yoshihito | |||
1926-1989 | Showa, imperator Hirohito | |||
since 1989 | Haisay, imperator Akihito |
Ethiopia. On the Ethiopian coins the letter designation of figures is accepted, for example: 1895 on the Ethiopian system it is designated so: 1) ten, 2) eighteen); 3) hundred (the three first letters mean 1800); 4) ninety; 5} five. To find out year of release of a coin, it is necessary to the figure specified on a coin to add 7 years and 6 months (1895 on the Ethiopian system corresponds 1903).